Efficacy of Deltamethrin against protective insecticide-stored grain pests


“According to the data obtained in laboratory conditions, K-Obiol EC 25 and 10 and 15 ml drug + 1 liter of water / 1 ton product dosages can be recommended against rice germ (Sitophilus oryzae) and Dry Fruit Moth (Plodia interpunctella) harmful to cereal grains. However, it is found out that 10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton crop dose can be used successfully in the application.”

Ali Arda IŞIKBER, Hüseyin BOZKURT, İnanç DOĞANAY
Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Agriculture Faculty, Plant Protection Department

Özgür SAĞLAM
Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University, Agriculture Faculty, Plant Protection Department

SUMMARY
In order to determine the long-term effect of Deltamethrin on Sitophilus oryzae L. (Rice Germ) and Plodia Interpunctella (Hübner) (Dried Fruit Moth) in maize, the recommended concentration of K-Obiol EC25 (10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton production) that contains 25-gram pure Deltamethrin and 250-gram pure Piperonyl butoxide per liter under 25 centigrade conditions and the lower and upper concentration of above mentioned concentration were used and were subjected to biologic tests for six months. For this purpose, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 ml drug + 1 lt water / 1 ton product concentrations were applied on maize, and before applying this to products, one day and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months later, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella majors were released.

According to the results obtained from the tests, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella majors that were released one day before the application at higher concentrations and 7.5 ml of drug + 1 lt water / 1 ton product were completely dead. In 20 and 30 ml of drug + 1lt water /1-ton product applications, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella that were released into the product at different dates after drug were determined to die. As a consequence, it has been concluded that 10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton crop dose can be used successfully in the application.

1. INTRODUCTION
Grains hold importance for both human nutrition and livestock sector. After harvesting, the unprocessed grain is stored for some times and may even be re-stored in processing plants. It is stated that half of the ten percent loss in stored products is caused by insects (five percent) (Esin, 1971). The most commonly used chemical control method in the control of grain pests in our country is the fumigation and contact effect synthetic insecticides (Chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, deltamethrin + piperonyl butoxide), and aluminium-phosphine. In this study, it is aimed to determine the efficiency of the biological activity of commercial insecticide K-Obiol EC 25 that has potent material 25-gram pure Deltamethrin and 250-gram pure Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) per litre against the harmful Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Rice Germ) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Dry Fruit Moth) in stored grains. In this context, in laboratory conditions, the recommended dose of K-Obiol EC 25 together with two lower and three upper doses were directly sprayed onto the corn and aimed to determine their biological activity against S. oryzae and P. interpunctella.

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD
2.1. Tested Products and Insect Species
In the standard drug trial “Pioneer-3394 0.2” corn type (Zea mays L.) was used which was not soiled with insects and contains 10% ± 0.2 product moisture. In the drug experiment, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Rice Germ) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Dried Fruit Moth) were used on corn (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Plodia interpunctella (Dried Fruit Moth) and Sitophilus oryzae (Rice Germ) majors.

2.2. Drug and application concentration used in biological tests
In biological tests, 25-gram pure Deltamethrin active substance and 250-gram pure Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) K-Obiol EC 25 per liter were used as a protective insecticide that was used against grain pests in our country. In the standard drug trial, 10 ml + 1 liter water / ton recommended for six month protection against stored grain pests and two lower doses of this recommended dose (5 ml and 7.5 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product) and three upper dose (15 ml, 20 ml and 30 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product) were spread directly on product with Airbrush.

2.3. Determination of the Effectiveness of the Drug in Laboratory Conditions and Trial Method
All biological activity tests were carried out at a temperature of 25 ± 1ºC at a relative humidity of 60 ± 5%, and in a dark climate chamber on maize. Maize grains were weighed into 3-kg batches with scales and placed into plastic basins in a single row, and the insecticide solution to be applied was sprayed on the product with an Airbrush sprayer. For the control group, the same process was carried out using water, and the sprayed products were allowed to dry for 24 hours. After the product was dried, 200 grams of each 3 kilograms of medicated product was taken and placed in 250-milliliter glass jars and 25 S. oryzae and P. interpunctella were released on them. In the 6-month protective effect tests, the drug was sprayed on the maize but the major insects were left on the product 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after spraying the drug on the product. After insects were released on medicated products, six days following the release of S. Oryzae and two days after P. İnterpunctella, the death rates were calculated with the help of 2 milimeter sieve.

3. RESULTS
3.1. Results from tests conducted with Sitophilus oryzae
When the percentage impact value obtained in the count results which were carried out after 24 hours and 1 and 6 months following medicating maize against rice germ (S. Oryzae) to determine the biological effectiveness of K-Obiol EC 25 preparation were reviewed, the application dose (F5,168 = 405.94, P<0.0001) and the duration of waiting of the medicated product (F6,168 = 153.75, P<0.0001) have important effect on the percentage impact value of drug. While the percentage effectiveness of K-Obiol EC 25 preparation on 20 and 30 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product dosage at 24 hours and all months is found to be 100 percent, its percentage effectiveness on 15 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product at 24 hours and 1., 2., 3., 4., and 5. month is found to be 100 percent but decreased to 92 percent in the 6th month. Also, at the concentration of 10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product, which is recommended concentration, the percentage impact is 100 percent at 24 hours and 1st month but it decreased to 99 percent in 2nd and 3rd month and decreased further to 97, 88, and 82 percent at 4th, 5th, and 6th respectively. In 5 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product concentration, no application has 100 percent impact. (Figure 2).

Figure 2. K-Obiol EC-25’s 6-month activity on the Sitophilus oryzae (Rice Germ) majors.

 

3.2. Results from tests conducted with Plodia interpunctella
When the percentage impact value obtained in the count results which were carried out after 24 hours and 1 and 6 months following medicating maize against dried fruit moth (P. interpunctella) to determine the biological effectiveness of K-Obiol EC 25 preparation were reviewed, the application dose (F5,168 = 188.78, P<0.0001) and the duration of waiting of the medicated product (F6,168 = 131.34, P<0.0001) have important effect on the percentage impact value of drug.

While the percentage effectiveness of K-Obiol EC 25 preparation on 20 and 30 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product dosage at 24 hours and all months is found to be 100 percent, its percentage effectiveness on 15 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product at 24 hours and 1. and 2. month is found to be 100. At the concentration of 10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product, which is recommended concentration, the percentage impact is 100 percent at 24 hours and 1st month but it decreased to 97, 93, 90, 84, and 80 percent in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th month respectively. In 5 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton product concentration, tests after one day drying have 100 percent impact (Figure 3).

Figure 3. 6-month activity of K-obiol EC-25 on Plodia interpunctella (Dry Fruit Moth) majors.

 

4. DISCUSSION
The analysis of variance results applied on the percentage impact value obtained in the count results which were carried out after 24 hours and 1 and 6 months following medicating maize against rice germ (S. oryzae) and dried fruit moth (P. interpunctella) to determine the biological effectiveness of K-Obiol EC 25 preparation showed that K-Obiol EC 25’s application dosage and the waiting period of medicated product have important effect on statically on the percentage impact values. According to the study’s results, K-Obiol EC preparation has been shown to be effective for long periods of time (1-6 months) against pests seen in stored cereals and products, and the product has been protected from pests in this period. Similarly, the study carried out by Bengston et al. (1983) in the laboratory conditions showed that K-Obiol EC 25 preparation is effective for long time against S. granarius, S. oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, R. dominica, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, T. confusum ve Ephestia cautella on wheat stored at 10-12 percent moisture level and 29-33 centigrade temperature and protects the product against pests. Also, the study carried out by Duguet (2016) on farm and laboratory conditions showed that K-Obiol EC 25 preparation protects the product for 365 days against S. garanarius, S. oryzae, S. maize, R. dominica, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum ve T. confusum.

As a consequence, According to the data obtained in laboratory conditions, K-Obiol EC 25 and 10 and 15 ml drug + 1 liter of water / 1 ton product dosages can be recommended against rice germ (Sitophilus oryzae) and Dry Fruit Moth (Plodia interpunctella) harmful to cereal grains. However, it is found out that 10 ml drug + 1 liter water / 1 ton crop dose can be used successfully in the application.

5. RESOURCES
– Esin, T., 1971. Hububat ve Bakliyat Ambar Zararlıları Mücadele Talimatı. Ayyıldız Matbaası, Ankara, 145s.
– Bengston ,M.A., H. Davies, M. Desmarchelier, R. Hening, W. Murray, B.W. Simpson, J.T. Snelson, R. Sticka, B.E. Wallbak., 1983. Organophosphorothioates and Synrgised Synthetic Pyrethoids as Grain Protectants on Bulk Wheat. Pestic. Sci., 14: 373-384.
– Duguet, J., 2006. Report Showing The Biological İnterest On On Cereal Grain Pests During The Storage. Translation of trials used in the biological dossiers K-Obiol EC 25 and K-Obiol ULV 6. June 2006. Department Biologie Applique Roussel Uclaf- Procida.

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